The subject and issues that are linked with emotional labour are generally covered from a female perspective as women are usually the sex who suffers criticism and ostracism. Gender ostracism has been challenged and fought by trade unions as this is not segregated to either specific gender type. Emotional labour is noticed especially when women feel they have to dress in a sexually provocative way to be aesthetically pleasing to male customers. These specific demands have introduced a bond to the world of cabin crew and a relationship has been forged from cabin crew of different airlines and carriers alike. Over the years there have been different stories and accounts published by female members of cabin crew on the issue of weight and size. There has been an increased amount of outrage as female members of cabin crew are under constant scrutiny to have their weight and size judged whereas pilots do not face these pressures.
It has been assessed that sex sells and is used to sell and launch products, this is prevalent right across the board and does not cease where tourism is concerned. Sexualised work does not have a direct with sex but can often be misinterpreted in this way due to the nature of the subject. The jobs this relates too are often those where customer services feature and focus heavily. Employers who aspire to high levels of customer services declared it was vital to take pride in appearance an attitude.
There have been various efforts attempted to free the workplace from the sexual and sensual connotation that is linked to the workplace; this proved to more of a challenge than first thought as sex is suddenly to be found everywhere. Sexuality has existed in workplaces for many years, this was first recorded in the 1830â€™s when barmaids were employing aesthetic labour in establishments known as gin palaces. A lot of employers saw the attempted sexualisation of the workplace as a marketing tool rather than an attempt to employ sexualised labour on their employees. Airlines do employ a strong sensual image to their employees, this then means a strong image is born and imprinted on the mind of the consumer. The airline Virgin are described in media terms as he worlds sexiest airline. Certain airlines employ sexually suggestive slogans and advertising strategies. Certain theorists used examples from Delta and National. Some airlines do not like to use slogans that might be deemed as sexually explicit as they are aware of what the consequences can be if trade unions and litigation are involved.
Whatever the job or the nature of work sexual harassment is a very series matter. Sexual harassment does not constitute compliments or jokes told in a socially acceptable manner, but behaviour that can be deemed and thought of to be offensive. Sexual harassment constitutes as bullying and can effect how well an employee does their job and function within the place of work.
Studies on flight attendants in the USA were carried out. It was thought that jobs in the airline industry were gender specific and depending on whether the worker was male or female the outcome could be very different. It was discussed that female cabin crew deployed their skills of feminine charm in order to please the customer and defuse a situation that could otherwise be awkward. The study also found that male cabin crew were not as likely to be criticised as female members of cabin crew. The service industry has been described as an old industry but with certain elements reinvented. This will then allow for social barriers to be eradicated. The appreciation or dissatisfaction is predominantly shown from most consumers with a judgement on the overall quality of the service received.
It is fair to declare that conclusions can be drawn from the findings of emotional, aesthetic and sexualised labour. There were many strong feelings that cabin crew are exposed to increased levels of emotional labour. Research found that those who worked in the airline industry compared to other service sector careers were prone to longer periods of face to face time with the customer. Those who worked in these service sector roles all took emotional exhaustion in different ways, these factors could include cultural or educational differences.
Flight Attendants Emotional Labor and Exhaustion in the Taiwanese Airline Industry
Chang, CP. Chiu, JM.
Whoâ€™s Got the Look? Emotional, Aesthetic and Sexualised Labour in Interactive Services
Warhurst, C. Nickson,D.
Aesthetic labour, cost minimisation and the labour process in the Asia Pacific airline industry
Spiess, L. Waring, P.