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Perceived risks of terrorism on Tourism

Perceived risks of terrorism on Tourism
Author: Gulden Gozuacik
3 Commentries
Terrorism, disease and other incidents is seen as perceived travel risk in tourism, this is why in tourism perception of safety and security is very important for the travellers, as it can change the decision of the traveller on visiting the particular place or destination if its not perceived as safe and secure.(Rittichainuwat, Chakraborty 2009).

U.S, study actually found about seven factors of travel risks on tourism "these were in the domains of health, political instability, terrorism, strange food, cultural barriers, political and religious dogma, and crime (Gray, Wilson,2009)."
Many of the travellers decision is usually based on perception of the risk instead of the actual risk facts and this can have negative influence for the traveller's behaviour towards the destination and this is why tourists may avoid travelling, if perceived as risky destination. (Rittichainuwat, Chakraborty 2009). For example the 9/11 terrorist attacks in U.S had changed traveller behaviour for most, especially Spanish people changed the transportation when travelling to a destination (Gray, Wilson, 2009).

There are some arguments that even though safety and security is important for the traveller when choosing a destination to visit, it is still not an major issue for some travellers that has already visitedthe destination before, so the travellers revisit the place even if it's perceived risks and elements of risks(Rittichainuwat, Chakraborty 2009). This could mean that if the traveller had already some kind of emotional connection and experience of an particular destination the perception of risks decreases and their attitude towards the destination do not change so this helps improve the attitude on international tourism (Rittichainuwat, Chakraborty 2009).

There are elements or ways that consumers is put off from travelling because of fear, anxiety and given bad image to the destinations that had events of terrorism attacks, such as information from the news and word of mouth can actually raise the perceptions of the risks for the consumers on terrorism. Media is usually fastest way to let people know about any situation in which is a big influence of changing people minds or views of a places, so media is good way for the consumers to gain information on the destinations whether it is risk affected or not, so the media helps the decision of the consumers, as making the wrong travel decision can seen as perceived risks(Rittichainuwat, Chakraborty 2009).
For example if a place is on the media such as news reports that is affected as a perceived risks the consumer may cancel flights bookings, change their minds as the consumer feels the risk are high and not safe enough so changes the attitude towards the place(Rittichainuwat, Chakraborty 2009). It is obvious that if a destination that might be targeted for an attack, tourist would avoid visiting especially if there is news about terrorist attacks mentioned a lot in the media that can fear the future travellers in to that changing their minds to visit(Rittichainuwat, Chakraborty 2009).

The other effect are usually terrorism decreases tourism arrivals this harms the economy of the destinations due to such element lower foreign exchanges and involvements, as well as foreign currency that normally benefits the places in tourism, so less travellers there are more the economy decreases and jobs are lost this like an domino effect on the economy (Coshall, 2003). Places like Egypt in 1992 had experienced terrorism attacks which led to 43% decrease on tourist receipts even though places that is not experienced any terrorism still had decreased on number tourist because of perception of risk had made travelling seem risky so even though places that has not had terrorism attacks it is still effected this had also changed the travelling pattern and destination image of the places(Coshall, 2003). There are so measures like time serious that analysis impact of terrorism on tourism, for example in many westerns countries finding how long is the effect after the attacks by looking at tourism arrivals and its usually decreased quickly as places seen as negative image there for the consumers would avoid (Neumayer 2004).
One argument is that between risks and uncertainty has changed over time and becoming more blurred. For Becks the arguments is that risks had become global and hard to in identify what risks are, as well as been problematic that is hard to asses and overcome some risks (Taylor, Wilson,2009). This argument is actually a good way to show what terrorism is about, and its about the fact that terrorism is uncertainty especially don't know when its going to happen just similar to any other uncontrollable bad events such as natural disasters and crimes or any other accidents (Taylor, Wilson,2009). So how will tourism recover from this? The literature findings is that tourism only will recover if the consumers forgets about the negative image of the places and the events that happened about a destination, But of course the recovery of the attacked destination is that depending on the media coverage and how negative was the destination portrayed in the media as this might make the destination image hard to recover from been a risky destination so many uses advertising as a tool to recover.(Neumayer 2004).


Rittichainuwat B N and G Chakraborty (2009) Perceived travel risks regarding terrorism and disease: the case of Thailand. Tourism Management 30, 410-18

Taylor B. S., Wilson C. D., (2009), Managing the Threat of Terrorism in British Travel and Leisure Organizations Organization Studies; 30; 251, Published by sage


Neumayer E (2004), The Impact of Political Violence on Tourism: Dynamic Cross-National Estimation Journal of Conflict Resolution 48; 259. Published by sage

Coshall J T. (2003)The Threat of Terrorism as an Intervention on International Travel Flows Journal of Travel Research; 42; 4 Published by sage

Gray J M. and Wilson M. A. (2009) The Relative Risk Perception of Travel Hazards Environment and Behavior; 41; 185 Published by sage

Percieved risks of terrorism on tourism.
Author: Michelle Burge
This Paper is introduced clearly. Its use of key words such as 'terrorism', 'safety' and 'security', establish to the reader what the essay will entail. The abundance of quotes used throughout, is demonstrated in the first paragraph, and implies that this piece will have been fully researched, in order to discuss the potential risks of terrorism on tourism.

Terrorism appears as one of the common risks factors anylysed by tourists before they travel. Yet Guldon goes on to explain how it is not necessarily the actual risk that causes this trepidation, but ones perception of the risk. This could therfore imply that terrorism does not have a global effect on tourism, as it will only hinder the popularity of a destination, if a great quantity of its visitors have percieved the risks in a negative way. Similarly, Gulden has suggested that there may be trends in traveller behaviour, depending on the country they are from. The given example of this is 9/11, which is confirmed with a quote from Gray and Wilson, (2009). It suggests Spain were a prominent country, for changing their travel arrangments after the terrorist attacks.

In addition to this, information on why popular tourist destinations are targeted could have been researched. According to Tarlow, (2002), destinations are often attacked to hinder a nation's economy. Tourism attractions such as museums and historic sites are often under attack because they represent the culture of a nation, and attacks at the time of a festival or national event, gain increased attention form the media.

It is particularly interesting, that out of the factors mentioned, Gulden has suggested that safety and security are not a major issue in destination or flight choice. It is a viable suggestion, that the tourists who are not disuaded may already have a connection to the destination and are therfore improving the state of international tourism. This demonstrates the positive effects of terrorism in tourism, in that it can never totally ruin the industry of a destination if there are still tourists loyal to it.

Gulden explains the effects of the media on tourism after an act of terrorism. It is not surprising, that the attention given to a destination after a terrorist attack, can deter tourists from booking flights, and even cause them to cancel their holiday plans. Valetin, (2003) suggests that, 'empirical results support the assumption that the media should not be underestimated in influencing tourist behaviour and the image of a destination.

Gulden discusses the negative effects on the economy as a result of a terrorist attack. This section of the paper is difficult to understand, yet the information is there. It is not only the loss of tourists flying to the destination, and therefore a decrease in demand on airlines, but also the fact that businesses often have to close due to an insufficient number of customers.

This paper is concluded well, although it is still rather difficult to understand. Gulden suggests that the key issue with terrorism is the uncertainty. Tourists often travel to 'experience the unknown', yet is this insecurity and risk that is potentially being taken in tourism, taking over the initial desire to explore our world.





Tarlow, Peter E, (2002). Tourism in the twenty-first century: global terrorism is changing the nature of travel, but it's not the only factor. An aging population, new technology, and other key trends will also affect the future of tourism. The Futurist. Found at http://www.allbusiness.com/professional-scientific/scientific-research/244313-1.html via Google. 16:24 03/05/10.


Andrea Valentin, (2003). AN EXPLORATORY AND LONGITUDINAL INVESTIGATION OF STUDENT PERCEPTIONS OF TRAVEL TO THE U.S POST SEPTEMBER 11. TERRORISM, TOURISM,
AND THE ISSUE ATTENTION CYCLE. University of Otago, Dunedin,
New Zealand. Found at http://eprints.otago.ac.nz/643/1/ValentinAndrea.pdf via Google Scolar. 16:27 03/05/10.





Perceived risks of terrorism on tourism
Author: David Humphreys
This paper provides a clear introduction in to the subject of terrorism on tourism with a focus on to the perception of risk and the effect it has on a destination image. The reason I have decided to provide a commentary for this paper is because the idea of destination image and media coverage of crime and terrorist attacks links in slightly with my own discussion paper.

The author shows a good understanding of the impact that negative media coverage can have on a destination image and uses a wide range of sources to demonstrate this, there are several factors which are identified that influence travel risks on tourism including social, political and social barriers (Gray, Wilson,2009) which could be explained and developed further.

As mentioned previously, the focus of the paper is on perceived risk appose to actual risk which implies that tourists make their decisions based on the information which is provided to them from external sources such as the media, a destination that is perceived to be dangerous will have experienced negative media coverage because of previous terrorist attacks and high levels of crime which I agree with, this is supported by my own research and the research of Albuquerque. K, McElroy. J (1999).

The examples that the author gives include the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the paper mentions that the terrorist attacks had caused a change in tourist patterns and behaviours however does not go on to explain the ways in which tourist behaviours and attitudes had changed (Gray, Wilson,2009). As well as this, the paper explains the effects that tourism decline has on an economy of a destination but the spin off effects that is has on small businesses could be explained in more detail as well as the actual effect that terrorism themselves. There is also a lack of research in to the reasons that destinations may be targeted for terrorist attacks.

It is suggested that tourists may not be affected by negative image of a destination if they have a personal connection to the destination, for example, if a tourist has a positive experience in the destination than the perception of risk decreases (Rittichainuwat, Chakraborty 2009), this shows that the connections people have with places will affect their overall perceptions which I personally agree with however a destinations social and political situation may change over time, affecting the actual risk of the destination, appose to just the perceived risk.

There are some points in the paper which are a little difficult to understand but the main points are there, the negative media coverage of a destination will lead to a decline in tourism so as a result, it is important to maintain high perceived levels of security and safety in order to maintain a positive destination image, the paper does not mention however that the media has been known to excaudate and be inaccurate sometimes so there can be a difference between the perceived risk and actual risk. Time is a factor that helps to heal a destinations negative image as long as tourists forget about any previous risk.


References
Albuquerque. K, McElroy. J. (1999) Tourism and Crime in the Caribbean. Annals of Tourism Research. Vol.26 No.4 pp. 968-984

Gray J M. and Wilson M. A. (2009) The Relative Risk Perception of Travel Hazards Environment and Behavior; 41; 185 Published by sage

Rittichainuwat B N and G Chakraborty (2009) Perceived travel risks regarding terrorism and disease: the case of Thailand. Tourism Management 30, 410-18
Perceived Risks of Terrorism on Tourism
Author: Benjamin Mugglestone
The reason why I have chosen to comment on this paper is because it is closely linked with the topic that my conference paper is on and so I feel that I can relate better to the subject matter. This summery has been written clearly and is easy to understand and to follow, the paper flows well and it is clear from reading it that the author has spent a lot of time and effort in researching the topic.

The author starts of well by using a quote from the authors Rittichainuwat and Chakraborty. (2009).This opening quote explains the reason why tourists feel unsafe and gives some of the reasons why that is. The author then goes on to talk about a study that was carried out by the USA and goes in to detail about the seven factors of travel risks of tourism. This gives good details about how and why tourists may encounter problems but it could go further by trying to see if any other country had carried out a similar study as there may be a different result from an American study to a study carried out by Israel for example.

The main body of this paper is on the perceived risk of terrorism on tourism and the author states that safety and security isn't necessarily that important to people who have already been to that destination, I do argue with this statement as I can say first hand that I have been to places that are labelled as unsafe places and I would not hesitate for one moment about going back there in the future.

The author goes into detail surrounding the Medias involvement in creating a positive and negative image of some destinations; she says that the media can be used to gain an image of a destination and to find out the latest information about that particular destination. I do agree with this but I do feel that a wide range of media sources should be used as there could be some bias reports from some media outlets.

Coshall (2003) highlights the problem that a reduction in tourism due to terrorism threats can damage a countries economy, this is quite a big point in this paper and I do agree with Gulden and Coshall that countries' economies are affected by terrorism. By giving an example such as Egypt this backs up this piece of writing and also gives a strong argument into how much Egypt economy has been affected by terrorism, but this could go further by possibly looking into why there has been this decrease as there has been no terrorist attacks, and it could be related to the earlier points in the paper to see if the media has played a role in creating a negative image of Egypt and if this is a possible reason.

Overall this paper has a very strong conclusion and goes into some good detail in its key areas, there are a few areas that could be improved to see if there was a link between media coverage and Egypt's decrease in tourism arrivals.

Rittichainuwat B N and G Chakraborty (2009) Perceived travel risks regarding terrorism and disease: the case of Thailand. Tourism Management 30, 410-18

Coshall J T. (2003) The Threat of Terrorism as an Intervention on International Travel Flows Journal of Travel Research; 42; 4 Published by sage