U.S, study actually found about seven factors of travel risks on tourism "these were in the domains of health, political instability, terrorism, strange food, cultural barriers, political and religious dogma, and crime (Gray, Wilson,2009)."
Many of the travellers decision is usually based on perception of the risk instead of the actual risk facts and this can have negative influence for the traveller's behaviour towards the destination and this is why tourists may avoid travelling, if perceived as risky destination. (Rittichainuwat, Chakraborty 2009). For example the 9/11 terrorist attacks in U.S had changed traveller behaviour for most, especially Spanish people changed the transportation when travelling to a destination (Gray, Wilson, 2009).
There are some arguments that even though safety and security is important for the traveller when choosing a destination to visit, it is still not an major issue for some travellers that has already visitedthe destination before, so the travellers revisit the place even if it's perceived risks and elements of risks(Rittichainuwat, Chakraborty 2009). This could mean that if the traveller had already some kind of emotional connection and experience of an particular destination the perception of risks decreases and their attitude towards the destination do not change so this helps improve the attitude on international tourism (Rittichainuwat, Chakraborty 2009).
There are elements or ways that consumers is put off from travelling because of fear, anxiety and given bad image to the destinations that had events of terrorism attacks, such as information from the news and word of mouth can actually raise the perceptions of the risks for the consumers on terrorism. Media is usually fastest way to let people know about any situation in which is a big influence of changing people minds or views of a places, so media is good way for the consumers to gain information on the destinations whether it is risk affected or not, so the media helps the decision of the consumers, as making the wrong travel decision can seen as perceived risks(Rittichainuwat, Chakraborty 2009).
For example if a place is on the media such as news reports that is affected as a perceived risks the consumer may cancel flights bookings, change their minds as the consumer feels the risk are high and not safe enough so changes the attitude towards the place(Rittichainuwat, Chakraborty 2009). It is obvious that if a destination that might be targeted for an attack, tourist would avoid visiting especially if there is news about terrorist attacks mentioned a lot in the media that can fear the future travellers in to that changing their minds to visit(Rittichainuwat, Chakraborty 2009).
The other effect are usually terrorism decreases tourism arrivals this harms the economy of the destinations due to such element lower foreign exchanges and involvements, as well as foreign currency that normally benefits the places in tourism, so less travellers there are more the economy decreases and jobs are lost this like an domino effect on the economy (Coshall, 2003). Places like Egypt in 1992 had experienced terrorism attacks which led to 43% decrease on tourist receipts even though places that is not experienced any terrorism still had decreased on number tourist because of perception of risk had made travelling seem risky so even though places that has not had terrorism attacks it is still effected this had also changed the travelling pattern and destination image of the places(Coshall, 2003). There are so measures like time serious that analysis impact of terrorism on tourism, for example in many westerns countries finding how long is the effect after the attacks by looking at tourism arrivals and its usually decreased quickly as places seen as negative image there for the consumers would avoid (Neumayer 2004).
One argument is that between risks and uncertainty has changed over time and becoming more blurred. For Becks the arguments is that risks had become global and hard to in identify what risks are, as well as been problematic that is hard to asses and overcome some risks (Taylor, Wilson,2009). This argument is actually a good way to show what terrorism is about, and its about the fact that terrorism is uncertainty especially don't know when its going to happen just similar to any other uncontrollable bad events such as natural disasters and crimes or any other accidents (Taylor, Wilson,2009). So how will tourism recover from this? The literature findings is that tourism only will recover if the consumers forgets about the negative image of the places and the events that happened about a destination, But of course the recovery of the attacked destination is that depending on the media coverage and how negative was the destination portrayed in the media as this might make the destination image hard to recover from been a risky destination so many uses advertising as a tool to recover.(Neumayer 2004).
Rittichainuwat B N and G Chakraborty (2009) Perceived travel risks regarding terrorism and disease: the case of Thailand. Tourism Management 30, 410-18
Taylor B. S., Wilson C. D., (2009), Managing the Threat of Terrorism in British Travel and Leisure Organizations Organization Studies; 30; 251, Published by sage
Neumayer E (2004), The Impact of Political Violence on Tourism: Dynamic Cross-National Estimation Journal of Conflict Resolution 48; 259. Published by sage
Coshall J T. (2003)The Threat of Terrorism as an Intervention on International Travel Flows Journal of Travel Research; 42; 4 Published by sage
Gray J M. and Wilson M. A. (2009) The Relative Risk Perception of Travel Hazards Environment and Behavior; 41; 185 Published by sage